Cell Phone – Paper 1 Pingju

Past Cell Phone

Abstract

Cellphone are very important in our lives. Most people use it to communicate with each other. It’s hard to believe that fifteen years ago cell phone were a rarity. Actually cellphone originated from the radio, and evolved into the telephone. Then radio were used since the 1921. Features were put into these radios in the 1940’s, and they were used by police. The concept  of the cellular phone was developed in 1947 which originated from the mobile car phone. This was produced by Bell Laboratories. The first actual cell phone was invented in 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola and other assisting inventors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Cooper said, “As I walked down the street while talking on the phone, sophisticated New Yorkers gaped at the sight of someone actually moving around while making a phone call. Remember that in 1973, there weren’t cordless telephones, let alone cellular phones. I made numerous calls, including one where I crossed the street while talking to a New York radio reporter – probably one of the more dangerous things I have ever done in my life.”

         In 1977, cell phones went public. The first public cell phone was tested in Chicago with 2000 customers, and eventually other cell phone trials appeared in the Washington D.C. and Baltimore area. Japan began testing cellular phone service in 1979. The first cell phone came to the market in 1984 from Motorola. “The brick” weighed 2 pounds, offered just a half-hour of talk time for every recharging and sold for $3,995. It was very large and heavy that make them difficult to carry around. During many years the structure of cellular phones has evolved, the size and weight were also improved. Currently the smallest size cell phone in the world is similar to a pack of cigarettes. Cellphones also have different styles such as a flip phone or the slide phone. Not only for the cell phone appearance, but also for the cell phone features and functions would continue to be created.

This article will discuss the history of cell phones and the evolution of the system. After 39 years the cell phone can help people connect with each other, and also have many extra functions. It now has more than 4.3 billion people to use it, and we can’t live without mobile phones.

Technology innovation

                     Launched in the early 1980s, the nascent first generation (1G) networks relied on analog transmission for voice communication. The underlying concepts originated from two key standards- the Nordic NMT and the US AMPS. But the system was unstable and not private. It was replaced by 2G wireless digital standards. The 2G was due to the lower-power operation, the digital GSM networks enabled smaller and lighter handsets with greater security and longer battery life. Before the transition from voice to data, mobile evolution was often depicted as a linear progression from analog to digital to multimedia to broadband cellular: 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G. The competitive realities were less orderly. The 3G technologies enabled faster data-transmission speeds, greater network capacity and more advanced network services. The first pre-commercial 3G network launched in May 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Japan.

The mission for the last thirty years was putting a computer on every desk and in every home, said Steve Ballmer, Microsoft’s president and CEO in 2000. But now everybody can use it on the smartphone through great software, any time and any place. Because of the increasing competition, DoCoMo was already working on 4G network. The 4G was a successor of the 3G and 2G families of standards. The facilities of this system was expected to provide a ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia.

The internet service was a big change for cellphone. This service provides mobile access to fixed-line internet service providers with near-wire line transmission quality and functionality. It included full web access to the internet as well as file transfer, e-mail, and streaming video/audio capability. It did not only change the role of cellphone in human life, but also provided incredible market in the future smartphone.

The first smartphone

        Before the smartphone came out, people use it to connect with other people. Smartphone’s powerful feature and unlimited technology not only changed the role of cellphone, but also changed human life.  The first smartphone was designed by IBM in 1992 and was called Simon. But that was just a concept product, the real smartphone was sold on market in 1993. It contained a calendar, address book, world clock, calculator, address book entries, email, send and receive FAX and included games. The customer used a touch screen to select the contacts or the finger to create facsimiles and memos with an optional stylus. By the standards of today, the Simon improved from a serious low-end phone. Then many cell phone companies follow this step and continue to improve cellphone feature. In 1996, the Nokia 9000 was arguably the first in a line of smartphone. Then in 2001, Nokia created the first phone that supported the site. The press called it a phone for the photo field. The term gained credentials in 2002 when Microsoft announced its mobile operating system, then known as “Microsoft Windows Powered Smartphone 2002.”  More than 1000 million cell phones with camera were sold on 2008. Smartphones with full support for mail represented about 10 to 100 million units. The most common mobile operating systems used by modern smartphones included Apple’s iOS, Google’s Android, Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Nokia’s Symbian, RIM’s BlackBerry OS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems could be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime.

According to the cellphone revolution human could see how fast was this product improved, The technology innovation would continue to be created.  It also meant that cellphones would affect our lives more than our thought.

Bibliograph

The Cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world / by Guy Klemens.

The mobile revolution: the making of mobile services worldwide / by Dan Steinbock.

http://inventors.about.com/cs/inventorsalphabet/a/martin_cooper.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/02001/home.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptbJZ9HBw2k

http://itlog.net/content/first-smartphone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Simon

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUG7nwMmoUc

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