MINGLI JIANG-History paper

Thesis paper01 – Past

Abstract

I select the topic of e-books for the reason that e-books is a major trend for people to read a book in the future, and I want to design a fantastic digital books for readers, I need to know much about what is the past, the now and the future about an e-books.

Past

The e-books – also called digital books come from traditional books.

There is a long history of traditional books before the appearance of e-books.When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, nearly everything that could be written upon—stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets—was used for writing.The study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy. Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt about 5,000 years ago. The Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from each other (scriptural continua) and there was no punctuation. Texts were written from right to left, left to right, and even so that alternate lines read in opposite directions. The technical term for this type of writing is ‘boustrophedon,  which means literally ‘ox-turning’ for the way a farmer drives an ox to plough his fields.

In the 5th century, Isidore of Seville explained the then-current relation between codex, book and scroll in his Etymologiae: “A codex is composed of many books; a book is of one scroll. It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks (codex) of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches.” Modern usage differs. A codex (in modern usage) is the first information repository that modern people would recognize as a “book”: leaves of uniform size bound in some manner along one edge, and typically held between two covers made of some more robust material.

A Chinese bamboo book meets the modern definition of Codex

A Chinese bamboo book meets the modern definition of Codex

The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. saw the decline of the culture of ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, became the main writing material. Also, Arab printing techniques and Wood block printing came together to make a book appearance. Arabs also produced and bound books in the medieval Islamic world, developing advanced techniques in (Arabic calligraphy), miniatures and bookbinding. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets. Marrakech, Morocco, had a street named Kutubiyyin or booksellers, which contained more than 100 bookshops in the 12th century; the famous Koutoubia Mosque is named so because of its location in this street.

The medieval Islamic world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities, known as check reading, in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript. In the check reading method, only “authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate.” With this check-reading system, “an author might produce a dozen or more copies from a single reading,” and with two or more readings, “more than one hundred copies of a single book could easily be produced.”

In woodblock printing, a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty (before 220AD), as a method of printing on textiles and later paper, and was widely used throughout East Asia. The oldest dated book printed by this method is The Diamond Sutra (868 AD).

The method (called Woodcut when used in art) arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. Books (known as block-books), as well as playing cards and religious pictures, began to be produced by this method. Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long. The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly.

Present

As e-book started, it promotes high technology. The term e-book is a contraction of “electronic book”; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form. An e-book is usually made available through the internet, but also on CD-ROM and other forms. E-Books may be read either via a computer or by means of a portable book display device known as an e-book reader, such as the Sony Reader, Barnes & Noble Nook or the Amazon Kindle. These devices attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book.

When Project Gutenberg began in July 1971, the Internet was just a glimmer. The pre-internet was created in the U.S. in 1969, as a network set up by the Pentagon. The Internet took off in 1974 with the creation of TCP/IP by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn. It expanded as a network linking U.S. governmental agencies, universities and research centers.

As e-book formats emerged and proliferated, some garnered support from major software companies such as Adobe with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Different readers followed different formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.

Recently, the feasibility of e-books has been spurred by two developments that seem to be irrelevant: World Wide Web, and portable computers. Generally, every reader uses e-books nowadays. We have viable reading devices, no matter computer or PDA; and we have distribution channels, as well as big-name writers and publishers who are willing to give it a try. We need a new model that revolutionizes the publishing business and breaks the past limitations. For example, I talked in a recent article about the pitfalls Amazon.com encountered — Web technology can’t eliminate the overhead for selling physical products. But if e-book works, there’s no need for Amazon’s distribution center, and no boxes and postage are needed either.

Future

In my mind, there is a big progress for e-books to develop in the future. People are trying new ways to reinvent books, but only a few are thinking about a new publishing model. The company encourages people to put anything they write on the market: family recipe, research paper, short stories, etc., which may not have a chance to be sold in the past.

They call these “Longer than an article. Shorter than a book” publications “eMatter”. These kinds of entries are easier to read, easier to write, easier to download, easier to carry around (the 66-page “Riding the Bullet” is just a perfect example), and it’s cheaper to buy. I don’t know what you think, but I am getting itchy to have many previously unsellable works listed on Mighty Words.

New marketplace as we’ve experienced on WWW, a new way of publishing will stimulate the publishing business itself. It may not pay much for reader to be a writer, but the market will be ignited, and we’ll have more stuff to read.

Conclusion

In my opinion, I suggest e-book design. It is a new form for people to get more information at a quick time. I can’t imagine if the world don’t have e-books. An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one must go to a bookshop, a home library, or public library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The production of e-books does not consume paper and ink. Depending on possible digital rights managements, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor.

Compared to printed publishing, it is cheaper and easier for authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed version. E-books will be the major trend for the future. Consequently, it will affect what kind of reading electronic devices will be product. The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, including notably Amazon.com and Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher’s e-reader software or hardware.

As a result, it is a good trend for the now and future. Readers can read books no matter where they are; they have no need to read books just at home or in the library. Moreover, readers can have more books at a time and choose which they like and to read it, they have no need to spend a lot of money to buy so many books. For the electronic devices, there will also be a big challenge.

Reference

http://www.e-book.com.au/bookhistory.htm

http://thenextweb.com/shareables/2011/03/17/the-40-year-history-of-ebooks-illustrated/

http://www.etudes-francaises.net/dossiers/ebookEN.pdf

http://www.slideshare.net/nebraskaccess/history-of-e-books-ereaders

——————————————————————————————————

Thesis paper 02 – Present

Abstract

I select the topic of e-book for the reason that e-book is a major trend for people to read in the future, and I want to design the fantastic digital books for readers. Therefore, I need to know much about what is the past, the now and the future about e-books.

As a greater number of electronic resources becomes available, retrieving relevant and authoritative information has become progressively more challenging and time consuming. Locating relevant information in a timely manner is critical for both the researcher and the information professional. Electronic books (e-Books) are one way to enhance the digital library with global 24-hours-a-day and 7-days-a-week access to authoritative information, and they enable users to quickly retrieve and access specific research material easily, quickly, and effectively.

Past

The e-books, also called digital books come from traditional books.

There is a long history about where did e-books start.

Writing with words was invented by the Sumerians about five thousand years ago (c.3100 BC). As far as we know it derived from symbols used for the keeping of accounts around four hundred years earlier.  Sumer was located in what is now Southern Iraq.

At first, writing was restricted to inscriptions, e.g. on stone, seals, brooches, and containers. The Sumerians then developed baked clay tablets, which can be regarded as the first books. These were soon followed by the papyrus rolls of the Egyptians, made from a plant native only to the Nile Valley. From around 500 BC the papyrus roll became dominant, although clay tablets survived for another five hundred years or so.

The first codex books used either papyrus or parchment as the writing surface.  Parchment was made from animal skin and gradually became preferred to papyrus for the codex, as it was more suitable for the new format.  By the 7th century AD, parchment had almost replaced papyrus altogether in Europe and the Middle East, and remained the preferred medium in Europe for about 800 years longer.

The disappearance of papyrus use was hastened by the near extinction of the papyrus plant, caused by foolish over harvesting. Parchment use did not seem impractical, since books were rare items hand-copied in only very limited quantities. Another, more expensive writing material was vellum, a higher quality variety of parchment made at first only from calfskin.

Meanwhile, paper was invented in China as early as 105 AD, and was at first prepared from bark and hemp. This paper developed to a high standard, and paper-making later spread to Japan (c.610 AD), and then to the Arab world along the Silk Road, via Samarkand in Central Asia.  Pre-Columbian American civilizations also produced a more primitive bark paper from an unknown date.

The Arabs introduced paper into Europe via Spain.  However it was not actually made in Europe until around 1276 AD (in Italy), and not in England until 1495.  One reason for this slow advance was that European-style paper, made usually from flax and hemp, was at first inferior to parchment, especially for illustrations. So until it was improved, paper was not very suitable for the style of illustrated manuscript common in the West. Present.

Present

As e-book started, it promotes high technology. The term e-book is a contraction of “electronic book”; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form. An e-book is usually made available through the internet, but also on CD-ROM and other forms. E-Books may be read either via a computer or by means of a portable book display device known as an e-book reader, such as the Sony Reader, Barnes & Noble Nook or the Amazon Kindle. These devices attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book.

When Project Gutenberg began in July 1971, the Internet was just a glimmer. The pre-internet was created in the U.S. in 1969, as a network set up by the Pentagon. The Internet took off in 1974 with the creation of TCP/IP by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn. It expanded as a network linking U.S. governmental agencies, universities and research centers.

As e-book formats emerged and proliferated, some garnered support from major software companies such as Adobe with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Different readers followed different formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-book, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.

Generally, every reader uses e-books nowadays. We have viable reading devices, no matter computer or PDA; and we have distribution channels, as well as big-name writers and publishers who are willing to give it a try. We need a new model that revolutionizes the publishing business and breaks the past limitations. For example, I talked in a recent article about the pitfalls Amazon.com encountered — Web technology can’t eliminate the overhead for selling physical products. But if e-book works, there’s no need for Amazon’s distribution center, and no boxes and postage are needed either.

Firstly, publishers began to sell digital versions of their books online, on their own websites or on the new e-Bookstores of Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble.com. In 2000, new online bookstores were created to sell “only” digital books (e-books), like Palm Digital Media (renamed Palm eBook Store), Mobipocket or Numilog. At the same time, publishers were digitizing their books by the hundreds, while the public was getting used to read e-books on computers, laptops, phones, smartphones and reading devices. 2003 was a turning point in an emerging market. More and more books were published simultaneously as a print book and a digital book, and thousands of new books, beginning with best-sellers, were sold as e-books in various formats: PDF (to be read on Acrobat Reader, replaced by Adobe Reader), LIT (to be read on Microsoft Reader), PRC (to be read on Mobipocket Reader) and others, with the Open eBook format becoming a standard for e-books.

Secondly, the beta version of Google Print went live in May 2005. In October 2004, Google launched the first part of Google Print as a project aimed at publishers, for Internet users to be able to see excerpts from their books and order them online. In December 2004, Google launched the second part of Google Print as a project intended for libraries, to build up a world digital library by digitizing the collections of main partner libraries. In August 2005, Google Print was stopped until further notice because of lawsuits filed by associations of authors and publishers for copyright infringement. The program resumed in August 2006 under the new name of Google Books. Google Books has offered books digitized in the participating libraries (Harvard, Stanford, Michigan, Oxford, California, Virginia, Wisconsin-Madison, Complutense of Madrid and New York Public Library), with either the full text for public domain books or excerpts for copyrighted books. Google settled a lawsuit with associations of authors and publishers in October 2008, with an agreement to be signed in 2009.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKEaypYJbb4

In addition, Amazon.com launched its own reading device, the Kindle, in November 2007. In the mid- 1990s, people read on their desktop computers before reading on their laptops. The Palm Pilot was launched in March 1996 as the first PDA, and people began reading on PDAs.
23 million Palm Pilots were sold between 1996 and 2002. Its main competitors were the Pocket PC (launched by Microsoft in April 2000) and the PDAs of Hewlett-Packard, Sony, Handspring, Toshiba and Casio. People also began reading on the first smartphones launched by Nokia or Sony Ericsson. Some companies launched dedicated reading devices like the Rocket eBook, the SoftBook Reader, the Gemstar eBook and the Cybook, all models that didn’t last long. Better reading devices emerged then, like the Cybook (new version) in 2004, the Sony Reader in 2006 and the Kindle in 2007. LCD screens were replaced by screens using the E Ink technology. The next step should be an ultra-thin flexible display called electronic paper (e-paper), launched in 2010 by E Ink, Plastic Logic and others.

2007/06   iPod Touch/iPhone

2007/06 iPod Touch/iPhone

2007/12 Sony PRS-505

2007/12 Sony PRS-505

2007/12   Amazon Kindle

2007/12 Amazon Kindle

2009/02 Kindle2

2009/02 Kindle2

2009/06 Kindle DX

2009/06 Kindle DX

2011/11 Kindle Fire

2011/11 Kindle Fire

Future

In my mind, there is a big progress for e-books to develop in the future. People are trying new ways to reinvent books, but only a few are thinking about a new publishing model and the flexible screens.

As to the publishing model, the company encourages people to put anything they write on the market: family recipe, research paper, short stories, etc., which may not have a chance to be sold in the past. I think maybe in the future, there are and beyond of e-books. They call these “Longer than an article. Shorter than a book” publications “e-Matter”. These kinds of entries are easier to read, easier to write, easier to download, easier to carry around (the 66-page “Riding the Bullet” is just a perfect example), and it’s cheaper to buy. I don’t know what you think, but I am getting itchy to have many previously unsellable works listed on Mighty Words.

Moreover, as to the flexible screens, current e-readers just aren’t very portable. The electronics are a small part of the package, the problem is the screen, and eventually we will have a flexible one. The issue will be touch: Devices like the Nook are already showing up with touch screens, and doing touch on a flexible screen could prove to be problematic, suggesting a near-term choice between the technologies. Personally, between touch and flexible screens, for what e-readers are initially being used for, I think portability rules. But as these evolve, touch will likely become increasingly important.

Conclusion

In my opinion, I suggest e-book design. It is a new form for people to get more information at a quick time. I can’t imagine if the world don’t have e-books. An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one must go to a bookshop, a home library, or public library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The production of e-books does not consume paper and ink. Depending on possible digital rights managements, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor.

People are already reading eBooks on their iPhones, already listening to music on their eBooks, and once we get the blended e-Paper-LCD screens, or OLED screens, and stronger Web-based services, even notebook computers may get dropped into the mash up. A future device may replace all of these devices in a single form factor. It will likely take 10 to 15 years – at least – for us to find this perfect storm product, but we are on our way. Stranger things have happened; I’m looking forward to the amazing things that are coming.

Reference

http://www.e-book.com.au/bookhistory.htm

http://thenextweb.com/shareables/2011/03/17/the-40-year-history-of-ebooks-illustrated/

http://www.etudes-francaises.net/dossiers/ebookEN.pdf

http://www.slideshare.net/nebraskaccess/history-of-e-books-ereaders

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120817-a-new-chapter-for-ebooks

http://www.swets.com/blog/7-essential-ingredients-for-the-future-of-ebooks#.UWAyuL803zE

——————————————————————————————————

 

Thesis paper 03 – Future (Final)

Abstract

In my last paper, I discussed much about the nowadays development of e-books, iPod Touch/iPhone, Sony PRS-505, Amazon Kindle, Kindle2, Kindle DX and Kindle Fire, which are significant and common digital reading devices that had long lasting influences through the worldwide culture in the remote present time. Through looking into main immigrant cities in the United States, this paper I will explore about the future trend of e-books. In my mind, there is a big progress for e-books to develop in the future. People are trying new ways to reinvent books, but only a few are thinking about a new publishing model and the flexible screens.

Past: Origin and Evolution of e-book

The first printing press with movable type that was invented in 1450 by Johannes Gutenberg revolutionized the printing process by making it simpler and more affordable. The first hypertext novel was published in 1987 (Afternoon, A Story by Michael Joyce), electronic books did not capture public attention until the online publication of Stephen King’s novella, Riding the Bullet in 14 March 2000 and could be downloaded for 2.5$. Within 24 hours, the text had been downloaded by 400,000 computer users 4.62 per second.

Keith Loris, president and CEO of SoftLock the organization that provided the server support, sent to prospective purchasers, telling them that more than 200,000 orders had been received and jamming their server, however, people waited for hours for it to download. The revenue is US $500,000, which indicated that it is worthwhile venture and it is on first day (www.planetbook.com). But publisher’s revenue has not solved the consumer’s issues. The majority of eBook systems lock their content to the individual machines of purchasers to prevent piracy. And the DRM technology initially used for King’s eBook worked only with PCs or hand-held devices. Glassbook provided the encryption and reader software for the PC version.) For the first two weeks after its release, Mac and UNIX users could not read “Riding the Bullet”. Simon & Schuster posted an apology on its eBooks page, noting that it was working with vendors and worked with Adobe to solve the issue of viewing free for Mac version.

The first codex books used either papyrus or parchment as the writing surface.  Parchment was made from animal skin and gradually became preferred to papyrus for the codex, as it was more suitable for the new format.  By the 7th century AD, parchment had almost replaced papyrus altogether in Europe and the Middle East, and remained the preferred medium in Europe for about 800 years longer.

The disappearance of papyrus use was hastened by the near extinction of the papyrus plant, caused by foolish over harvesting. Parchment use did not seem impractical, since books were rare items hand-copied in only very limited quantities. Another, more expensive writing material was vellum, a higher quality variety of parchment made at first only from calfskin.

Meanwhile paper was invented in China as early as 105 AD, and was at first prepared from bark and hemp. This paper developed to a high standard, and paper-making later spread to Japan (c.610 AD), and then to the Arab world along the Silk Road, via Samarkand in Central Asia.  Pre-Columbian American civilizations also produced a more primitive bark paper from an unknown date.

The Arabs introduced paper into Europe via Spain.  However it was not actually made in Europe until around 1276 AD (in Italy), and not in England until 1495.  One reason for this slow advance was that European-style paper, made usually from flax and hemp, was at first inferior to parchment, especially for illustrations. So until it was improved, paper was not very suitable for the style of illustrated manuscript common in the West. 

Present: A big progress of e-book devices

As e-book started, it promotes high technology. The term e-book is a contraction of “electronic book”; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form. An e-book is usually made available through the internet, but also on CD-ROM and other forms. E-Books may be read either via a computer or by means of a portable book display device known as an e-book reader, such as the Sony Reader, Barnes & Noble Nook or the Amazon Kindle. These devices attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book.

When Project Gutenberg began in July 1971, the Internet was just a glimmer. The pre-internet was created in the U.S. in 1969, as a network set up by the Pentagon. The Internet took off in 1974 with the creation of TCP/IP by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn. It expanded as a network linking U.S. governmental agencies, universities and research centers.

As e-book formats emerged and proliferated, some garnered support from major software companies such as Adobe with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Different readers followed different formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.

Generally, every reader uses e-books nowadays. We have viable reading devices, no matter computer or PDA; and we have distribution channels, as well as big-name writers and publishers who are willing to give it a try. We need a new model that revolutionizes the publishing business and breaks the past limitations. For example, I talked in a recent article about the pitfalls Amazon.com encountered — Web technology can’t eliminate the overhead for selling physical products. But if e-book works, there’s no need for Amazon’s distribution center, and no boxes and postage are needed either.

Future: so magic, so powerful and so actual

In my mind, there is a big progress for e-books to develop in the future. People are trying new ways to reinvent books, but only a few are thinking about a new publishing model and the flexible screens.

Moreover, as to the flexible screens, current e-readers just aren’t very portable. The electronics are a small part of the package, the problem is the screen, and eventually we will have a flexible one. The issue will be touch: Devices like the Nook are already showing up with touch screens, and doing touch on a flexible screen could prove to be problematic, suggesting a near-term choice between the technologies. Personally, between touch and flexible screens, for what e-readers are initially being used for, I think portability rules. But as these evolve, touch will likely become increasingly important.

A number of technology developments are pointing to a trend towards reflective, flexible display surfaces (based on OLED and Polymer LEDs) that can be rolled, like paper. There is considerable research and industry interest and competition is fierce (Lemon, 2004). Many different types of applications are envisaged such as roll-up displays incorporated into mobile phones, or GPS-based, handheld navigation systems that provide larger information screens to be carried on the move, and there may also be a considerable market in smart cards and ticketing. The provision of larger display surfaces, that are also highly portable, will also potentially have benefits for the visually impaired. So-called ‘active wallpaper’ for covering an entire room is also predicted and work is ongoing into wearable displays, incorporated into clothing (France Telecom, 2004).

In the Netherlands, Philips Polymer Vision (www.polymervision.nl) is working on flexible display systems with an emphasis on developing a product that can be rolled up. Currently, Philips can produce a 25µm thick backbone for a display surface which, when combined with an electronic ink display surface (figure 6), can produce a display that is 100µm thick (about the same as some types of paper). The image size is 4.7 (diagonal) inches and has a relatively low response time (0.5 seconds to change the image), is monochrome, and can be bent to a radius of less than 1cm (Veritas, 2005). This kind of rollable, flexible display will be in the market by 2007 (Fox, 2005) and Philips predict larger display areas and faster image switching response times in coming years.

Philips Electronics spinoff Polymer Vision promoted its flexible eReader for years but declared bankruptcy before bringing the device to market. Hewlett-Packard has been developing printable Mylar displays that it imagines could be used for candy wrappers, armband computers for the military or living-room wallpaper, but the displays are still several years from commercialization.

The most likely scenario is that wildly popular tablets will be the first iteration of flexible technology. But Epps says other emerging technology, such as wearables, embedded devices and mini-projectors, might catch on sooner when new manufacturing processes ramp up.

The promise of unbreakable, lightweight, non-glass displays has researchers and engineers at HP, Samsung and elsewhere toiling away in hopes of tapping into a potential gold mine. Despite ups and downs, sales for flexible displays are expected to zoom to $8.2 billion in 2018 from $85 million in 2008, estimates Jennifer Colegrove, an analyst at NPD DisplaySearch.

People are already reading eBooks on their iPhones, already listening to music on their eBooks, and once we get the blended e-Paper-LCD screens, or OLED screens, and stronger Web-based services, even notebook computers may get dropped into the mash up. A future device may replace all of these devices in a single form factor. It will likely take 10 to 15 years – at least – for us to find this perfect storm product, but we are on our way. Stranger things have happened; I’m looking forward to the amazing things that are coming.

Conclusion

In my opinion, I suggest e-book design. It is a new form for people to get more information at a quick time. I can’t imagine if the world don’t have e-books. An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one must go to a bookshop, a home library, or public library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The production of e-books does not consume paper and ink. Depending on possible digital rights managements, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor.

Absorbing and interacting with visual information through displays is an integral part of our everyday working and educational life. The technology behind this has a long history of striving to match the capacity of the human visual system. Until recently this has remained fairly static, being based on the cathode ray tube (CRT), a device virtually unchanged since its commercial introduction. However, we are now in a period of tremendous flux as the state of the art becomes centred on flat display panel technologies through LCD and Plasma. There were a number of different drivers for the introduction and uptake of these new displays in variety of scenarios (for example the lower power consumption required by laptops and the capacity to handle HDTV), but the overriding consideration is the space-saving design inherent in flat screens. Some of these changes will continue the same development curve as current FPDs through new device technologies such as nanotube-based field emission devices; others will take us in new directions, removing the display screen altogether and using microdisplays to scan directly into our eyes.

 

Reference

http://www.e-book.com.au/bookhistory.htm

http://thenextweb.com/shareables/2011/03/17/the-40-year-history-of-ebooks-illustrated/

http://www.etudes-francaises.net/dossiers/ebookEN.pdf

http://www.slideshare.net/nebraskaccess/history-of-e-books-ereaders

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120817-a-new-chapter-for-ebooks

http://www.swets.com/blog/7-essential-ingredients-for-the-future-of-ebooks#.UWAyuL803zE

http://www.digitaltrends.com/features/the-future-of-electronic-paper/

http://www.digitaltrends.com/opinion/the-future-of-ebooks-flexible-screens-and-beyond/

http://www.tentimesone.com/the-future-now-flexible-screen-displays/

http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/29/apples-flexible-display-for-a-future-iphone-cool-but-cute/

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2 comments

  1. imagcwp · February 26, 2013

    good job lady ! !~Claire

  2. Patrick · March 18, 2013

    Jiang,

    Very good job and a great area of discussion. This is one of my favorite things. I love books but have a very great interest in this new development. I first worked within this area in 1987 – 25 years ago. New stuff started developing and has been going full force ever since. Now the ebook market is outselling traditional books according to amazon for the past 2 years. Big steps in ebooks coming now. Use of rich media is being introduced, video, interactive problems and web connects to discussion and also community. Lots to discuss.

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