IMA 504 – Ethical Issues – Eirik Bjorno

Social Media Ethical Paper

Facebook has grown into one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world. It started out as a social network at Harvard, and now it is worth billions of dollars. When Facebook is based on the users contributions and activities, is it right for Facebook to take advantage of their users by selling their photos and information and keep all their revenues themselves?

The social media market keeps growing every year. In 2012 only eight consumer social networks had publically available revenue run rates for 2013, on average, they’re forecasting $3.7 billion. In total, they’re estimating revenues of $8.3 billion.  Last year, in 2012, ten of the consumer social network sites had publicly available revenues, which amount of $10.7 billion global revenues, averaged across the ten is $1.7 billion. The growth is simply remarkable.

But how can these free social media sites make this amount of money? It all tracks back to Ad revenues. In late July 2013 data showed that 89% of all online advertisers use free social media marketing, while 75 % use paid social media advertising. The report also looked at how many of the advertisers were going to raise their budget for social media marketing the next year; and the result was that 69% (!) of the current advertisers were planning to increase their budgets the upcoming year. (Clarke)

So from talking in percent, lets look at the actual numbers. According to Lori Andrews Facebook made $ 3.1 billion in advertisement revenue last year. But that is not even considered a noteworthy amount compared some other Internet Service providers. Google made $ 36.5 billion in revenue in 2011. With these numbers in mind, we need to realize that Google, Facebook ad twitter don’t have a storage full of valuable objects. There are no electronic gadgets; no luxury cars, airplanes or Rolex watches. The only inventory they have is our personal information. Our photos. Our Emails. Even our relationship status. That’s what the online service providers are selling. That’s why their advertisement revenues are so high. They are selling information about us so their advertisers hit their demographic better. (Andrews)

We have all experienced an ad for new headphones pops up on Facebook five minutes after we searched for it on amazon. Facebook let’s advertisers access their database, point out exactly who of the 850 million users they want to hit, and BOOM their sales skyrockets. It is effective. With Google it is even worse. If you mention the word “soccer-cleats” in an email to your coach, expect advertisements for the Adidas Predators in your browser. Google access all you personal Email and sell the information to advertisers who are more than willing to spend some extra dollars to hit the right target group. (Andrews)

One thing is the advertisement. It can actually be helpful some times, and you might end up doing a good deal. But the bits and bytes about your personal life can easily be used against you in certain situations. Software producer Lexis Nexis has a product called Accruint for Law Enforcement; this simply gives the government information about what people do on social media sites. Immigration Services has several examples where they scrutinize photos and status updates on Facebook to reveal sham marriages. The immigration agents simply use an algorithm developed in a study by Lars Backstrom, a senior engineer at Facebook and Jon Kleinberg, a professor of computer science at Cornell, to tell who you are really dating; Backstrom and Kleinbergs algorithm only use the to, from, bcc and timestamp in your emails and Facebook messages to tell if you really are in a relationship. “The best indicator of who is paired with whom comes from how closely their mutual contacts are connected, something the researchers call “dispersion”. By measuring dispersion, Backstrom and Kleinberg were able to predict relationships with more than 50 percent accuracy.” (Dalenberg)

More commonly is it when employers sometimes decide whether to hire people based on their social media accounts. One study states that 70 % of recruiters in the United States have rejected a candidate based on their profile on social media sites. You can obviously defend this by saying it is your own responsibility to clean up their social media profiles to avoid this, and it is a valid point.

Harder is it to defend the practice of stereotyping in data aggregation. You might experience your application for credit being declined not based on your own credits or finances, but on aggregated data – what other people who fit your “profile” have done.  If soccer players or dog owners are more likely to renege on their credit-card bills, then the fact that you’ve looked at soccer ads or posted a photo of their three dogs might cause a data aggregator to classify you as less credit-worthy.

Are all these practices ok? Is it ok that Google, Facebook, Twitter and others are taking advantage of us? They take advantage of our personal life. One thing is the cyberbullying, the Internet frauds and the dangerous information accessible to us on the Internet, but when we try to be as careful as we possibly can we still might be in risk of being damaged. The government takes legal action based on what we tell friends and family online. I don’t think it is ok, and I think it is ethical wrong by the Internet service providers to share the information they way they are doing.

On the other side, are they legally allowed to do it? Yes indeed. When you sign up to use any Internet service you are required to accept a disclaimer. If you don’t accept it, you are simply not granted access to the product. All providers of online services make sure they cover everything in as complicated language as possible, preferably with a size 6 font to make it even harder to understand. Below is a part of Google’s disclaimer:

“When you upload or otherwise submit content to our Services, you give Google (and those we work with) a worldwide license to use, host, store, reproduce, modify, create derivative works (such as those resulting from translations, adaptations or other changes we make so that your content works better with our Services), communicate, publish, publicly perform, publicly display and distribute such content. The rights you grant in this license are for the limited purpose of operating, promoting, and improving our Services, and to develop new ones. This license continues even if you stop using our Services.” (Arora)

We are selling our soul to Google when accepting these terms, but do we have a choice? Google have by far the best service, we wont be able to use Google Docs, Gmail, Google Chat etc. if we don’t accept. With these services being the best available on the market, most of us are willing to accept these terms.

Now, after accepting that this is the reality. There is not much we can do to stop this practice from happening. Shouldn’t these companies who makes millions of dollars of our personal information at least give something back to us? I’m not talking about dollar bills raining over Manhattan, but what about charity programs. How much are Google, Facebook or Twitter given away to charity a year?

Facebook’s founder Mark Zuckerberg was according to CNN the nations second-biggest charity donor in 2012, with only Warren Buffet over him on the list. Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan gave $498.8 million to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation; a simply outstanding gesture from Zuckerberg, who apparently is worth 12 billion dollars. The Silicon Valley Community Foundation issues grants for multiple causes in the San Francisco area. In 2012, its charitable causes ranged from funds for victims of the California wildfires to groups providing food and shelter to the needy. What I specially would like to endorse Zuckerberg for though, is the $100 million donation he gave to public schools in Newark New Jersey in 2010. That was his first big splash in the philanthropy space when he announced the donation live on Oprah. (Gross)

Google decides to give back in a different way. In 2011 they gave over $100 million to a whole slew of charitable organizations all over the world. Those organizations included ones that focus on education for girls, ending modern day slavery and human trafficking, as well as bringing more jobs to third world countries. (Olanoff)

Also Google co-founder Sergey Brin and his wife Anne Wojcicki put in $223 million into their own Brin Wojcicki Foundation. The establishment donates to a number of causes that, in 2012, included women’s and environmental issues and a foundation dedicated to curbing poverty. The couple also donated nearly $33 million last year to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. Microsoft Co-founder Paul Allen added another $309 million to the pool, when he donated mostly to the Allen Institute of Brain Science.  (Gross)

As we see it is not small number we are dealing with when it comes to donations from tech executives, and it is clear that they focus on giving back to the community. But it is enough? Looking at the numbers going in and out from these massive web based companies we can see that their activities in the philanthropy area is only a very small part of their total revenues. I understand it is a business, and they don’t have to give away any of their money, but isn’t that the right thing to do? They take advantage of the people because they can, and because there is no law stopping them. Before I wrote this article I would easily say that it is disgraceful how Facebook, Google and Instagram take our information and photos to gain even more income.

However, looking at the numbers it is hard to say that Facebook and Google are not aware of their social responsibilities. Donations of the amount they have made are truly amazing, and will hopefully make a difference in the areas where they are spent. Still, I would like to see more specific donations, like Zuckerbergs donation to schools in New Jersey. When money is plowed into major general organizations there is a tendency that a lot of the money is spent on administrative expenses. For instance donations to The Silicon Valley Community Foundation is among many looked at as a ticket into the inner circle of the financial elite, rather than money spent to help others.

To conclude I would like to state that if Facebook, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and Google keep sharing their wealth with people, organizations and areas in society who needs it, they show their users respect. I would like to see generous donations to the executive’s heart matters, rather than donations to their friend’s charity funds. It is possible for the general public to change their mind about their information being shared, if they get something in return. It is like taxes; you pay the price for the bigger picture to grow better.


Andrews, Lori. Facebook Is Using You. 04 February 2012. The New York Times Company. 03 12 2013.

Arora, Nigam. Be Prepeared To Sell Your Soul If You Use Google. 27 01 2012. 02 12 2013.

Clarke, Tara. How Do Social Media Companies Make Money? 04 12 2013. Money Map Press. 01 12 2013.

Dalenberg, Alex. Amorous Facebook algorithm unlocks the secrets of love and fake marriage. 30 10 2013. American City Business Journals. 02 12 2013.

Gross, Doug. Facebook’s Zuckerberg is nation’s No. 2 charitable donor. 12 02 2013. Cable News Network. 02 12 2013.

Olanoff, Drew. In 2011, Google gave back $100 million to various charitable organizations. 11 12 2011. The Next Web. 01 12 2013.

IMA501- XIngyu Long


This is a e-commerce portal of food website, based on each city. There are wealth content, fully functional and innovative ideas.It integrates portals, e-commerce, instant messaging, web2.0 and other functions.


  1. Concept of operations: Committed to urban consumer experience of communication and aggregation. Almost all of the information collected from users in the public service ; each People can freely express their comments on the merchants , everyone can share their extinction experience, while sharing a collective wisdom.
  2. Website purpose: Sharing gourmet food information.
  3. Operating mode: O2O mode, Online-offline.
  4. The superior search: through search engines, you can easily query what you want to search. Such as recipes , restaurant , excellent Coupons , wine information.
  5. Online ordering service: online ordering through this site.
  6. The most comprehensive gourmet restaurant: Provided all the restaurants’s information for the users in order to quickly know what they want to go.
  7. Gourmet recipes: Offer a gourmet cookbook platform for the users to learn to cook .
  8. Gourmet INFO: Provide a healthy diet,culture and other information for users.
  9. Supply and demand information: Merchant can post their products information through the website.
  10. Gourmet Card: Provide discounts cards for the users, you can enjoy a discount by holding the card.

Flow Chart: 


Wire Frame: 

wire frameDesign Of Homepage:


Recipes Page:


Contact Page:homepage

Sweeney –

Interactive Multimedia Books & Lessons

            The goal of IMBL is to be a one-stop-shop for teachers. A place where they find material to supplement their lessons. As a teacher, the website is created to be easy to use and convenient.  It also has content that fills the gaps of education. All of the books are created by teachers and are content rich. Their subject areas are where the school library and educational sties shortfall on substance. By adding the share board feature, students now can take charge of their learning experience and become engaged through peer-to-peer learning that spreads outside of their classmates and school.

Inspiration –

Content – Brain Pop

Books – interactive through InDesign (Pin Wa)

Share Board – Learnist







View on Flowboard – Presentation and Storytelling Platform for iPad

Sarah Gualtieri Paper 3 : The Future of How We Share Information

Sarah Gualtieri
IMA 503
Paper 3 : The Future of How We Share Information

    The history of information and how it is shared stretches back to simple crude drawings of cave dwelling people. Slowly, over time, information has been spread to more people much faster. Written language began with pen and paper which could eventually be printed, manufactured in mass quantities and shipped over distance. Eventually telegraphs, telephones, television and computers were shaping the way people live their lives. Society has become more and more dependent on technology that connects them to information and communication. As new technologies were developed to spread information in a quicker and broader way, more technology was developed to make these tasks easier. The question that might be difficult to answer is this: does new technology dictate the information being communicated or is it the information that creates the demand for new technology?
    People have sought to share and send information across distance to each other for centuries which fueled many inventions that have evolved into many that are still used today. Telegraph was the beginnings of a more instant communication, something that people do today through internet and phone communications. Printing is a form of technology that was used possibly the longest to share information however it is the one form that is finally phasing out. With screens and instant handheld access to information that was previously printed, publishing companies are finding that they can cut costs through online publishing and their audience is more inclined to use their devices for reading their content. Radio and television are forms of sending information that also still exists but just like publishing they are being sent and viewed through internet and handheld devices more often. All of these technologies may eventually phase out but the information that they are used for may still be sent and received in other ways.
    Computers, including desktops, tablets and smartphones are responsible for a huge shift in how people share information. Today computers and the internet are a part of every day life for people all over the world. The beginnings of computers and automated machines goes back to the early 1800s (1). Many of the earliest forms of computers were built for making calculations. Throughout the early part f the 1900s the concept of a programmable computer was evolving slowly and being developed by different people in the US and Europe. (2) Computers were further developed from the 1970s through the 1980s by companies such as IBM, Microsoft and Apple. These are all names that are still well known today and products by these companies are used in nearly ever home and office or business. With the development of the internet computers took on an entirely new purpose. Throughout the 1990s many of the ways we share information began to change. From online shopping with companies such as Amazon to the beginnings of downloading music and reading articles online.
    The more that the internet became used in homes and businesses, the more it changed every almost every other technology that people use. While the internet was slow in the beginning with dial up modems that tied up phone lines eventually more convenient and faster technology was developed. As connections became faster, more information could be downloaded, sent and shared. Today most videos are streaming, allowing people to watch videos instantly. YouTube was one of the first major websites to use this streaming technology and is now used on phones and tablets to watch news, share personal videos, and research anything in a matter of minutes. Now that streaming video can be viewed on phones that most people keep with them at all times, there is little reason to ever go back to traditional television, VHS or DVD. Thee is no longer a need for the clutter of storing files or videos separately and iMac computers no longer come with a CD drive. The reason for this is not because a CD drive is more expensive but rather that companies realize that there is no longer a need to store information this way. Every video, music file, word file or anything previously printed or stored on a disc can now exists on a device or network and be accessed instantly.
    Just as the internet changed things dramatically so did the invention of the smart phone. Although the idea of the smart phone did not move as quickly as the internet. Technology that seems to take off overnight and become part of everyday life is not always so new. Cell phones were not popularized until the 1990s but the technology has existed as early as the 1940s. Often the timing or the initial designs are not right even though the idea was there. As more cell phone companies grew and towers went up, service became better and more people were inclined to buy cell phones. With the invention of the internet and wifi phones and other devices such as e-readers and tablets have become more popular and companies have invested in developing better hand held devices due to a demand for them that was not there when these ideas were first introduced. In this case one technology such as a phone or tablet is useless without another technology, a network that can quickly send and receive information. These devices are only tools for sending and receiving information over wireless networks.
    In this case the devices  can adapt and change to better suit the information being sent over these networks. Photots and videos demand high quality and larger screens, possibly a main reason for a tablet that is the same as a smartphone only larger.  E-readers such as the kindle have a paperwhite screen so that words can be viewed on a non reflective surface much like an actual book. E-reader existed years before the kindle in a bulky form with little content available to view. Now with wifi and a store such as, millions of books can be bought, cheaper than print, and downloaded instantly to a device. Once things become convenient for the consumer and cheap to manufacture they have a much better chance of becoming popular. It could be possible that past technologies that were once passed over with no success could eventually become as life changing as the smartphone if the conditions are right.
    For the time being, however, most major companies such as apple and google are continuing to build on their previous success. Apple has recently released a new, smaller tablet, identical to what they have already created. They are constantly developing tools to give the iphone more advanced functionality and new uses. Smart phones can be used, and likely will be more so in the future, to collect and share much more personal data. They can be used to track or measure our every move including sleeping habits, steps taken, calories consumes or burned. This information can be shared instantly with a person’s doctor. Cardiologist Eric Topol has recently published a book about how technology such as smart phones will play a large part in the future of medicine. (3) With the capabilities of this technology to gather data about a person’s health as well as fast networks to share the data with, it seems likely that nearly every doctor will connect with their patients through tablets or smartphones. It is possible that new device will be developed specifically for this use. Apple has already created a wrist band that collects health related data that can be sent and analyzed on other devices.
    Google is also developing new devises based on the uses of a smartphone but taking the technology to a new level of user experience. Currently Google is developing glasses that function similarly to a smart phone except that social media, video and communication will become part of a persons own environment rather than a separate device to be put away and checked frequently. With google glasses information will be streaming to the user as often as they like with no need to separate themselves from their device. Google has also created a car that can drive itself with the use of information from satellites. This kind of use of technology may be the future of a more creative way to send and receive information for a useful purpose. Smart phones already use GPS for sending information about customers locations or to help the user navigate or even find their device if lost.
 One of the most interesting and realistic examples of how all of these technologies may evolve is illustrated by Corning Glass in their video “A Day of Glass”. The video shows how technology similar to that of smartphones can be used in nearly every aspect of life. From cooking to driving, changing the light in a room, viewing television, communicating and how we work and create. As people become more comfortable with touch devices companies can incorporate this technology in their products and the user will intuitively understand how to use it. Sending and receiving information will become a part of the user and feel as natural as reading a newspaper does to people now. In the future reading a printed book will seem more like something strange and foreign to most people.
    The way we process and share information has changed its form many times throughout history and is now moving faster than ever. The information that we share may also shape the devices that we use to do so. Once thing that has not changed is that we are always moving toward something more convenient, faster and profitable.



Alicia S. The Wild Beast

While local and national news is still in demand content producers and programs are looking towards the evolution of how news is delivered. The overall goal is to make news affordable and convenient. Newspapers are starting to become more obsolete, but serves as a great enforcer for digital news and content overall.  Media is a leading publisher of news, sport, lifestyle and search content.

In an online article American business magnate Warren Buffet suggested, “The industry has evolved–but the product still has value”. While there might be some truth to this statement, the ideologies of news and content has remained the same but newspaper producers are literally lighting themselves on fire. Most newspapers should consider shifting their budget toward digital.

It has been proposed that Semantic Web technologies or Smart spaces would be key enablers in achieving context-aware computing in our everyday environments.

The environments we live in (homes, cars, work places, etc.) are inhabited by a large and a constantly increasing number of electronic devices with huge amounts of information embedded into them.

The ideas of smart spaces have been the buzzwords these days. Although digital signage are becoming more popular, producers have maximized these spaces, and  soon will the newspaper industry. Smart spaces refer to built environments such as apartments, offices, museums, hospitals, schools, malls, university campuses, and outdoor areas that are enabled for co-operation of smart objects and systems, and for ubiquitous interaction with frequent and sporadic visitors.

The smart space vision can be traced back to the beginning of the 1990s, when Mark Weiser presented his ideas of ubiquitous computing.

Digital spaces seem to be a bit like virtual silly putty. You can mold and shape them in almost any way you want, you can copy and recreate them in the same way we used to imprint newspaper clips on the putty, and you can take the same space and use it over and over in different ways. All of this flexibility makes digital spaces exciting, fluid, and responsive. It can also make it challenging to decide which digital space is the right one for a particular environment.

It seems only fitting that newspaper utilize smart spaces to make news readily available for a specific community or even demographic.

While I do agree with Buffet’s statement; “Wherever there is a pervasive sense of community, a paper that serves the special informational needs of that community will remain indispensable to a significant portion of its residents”. I also believe the ideas of the paper format has to evolve into smart spaces.

The necessary components for smart spaces will become increasingly widespread as intelligent self-regulating devices are becoming readily available. Information on breaking news and weather are all content should adapt likewise. With the use of smart spaces and large digital spaces news can become a communal platform.  While news will still be available on personal devices the use or smart space and large display will redefine how news is read, accepted and discussed. The application used in these spaces to deliver news will typically include multifaceted options.

An example of  a smart space device  for news and content display is Screenfinity. This very large are being implemented more often and this could enable passers-by to read considerable amounts of content while walking. Screenfinity is a technique to rotate, translate, and zoom content in order to enable reading while passing by a very large displays.

With the proliferation of smart devices, its just a matter of time for the creation of smart spaces in public areas to appear with the promise of boosted efficiency in areas like personal way-finding and improved information.

Paper 1 Sarah Gualtieri

Sarah Gualtieri

IMA 503

The Distribution Of Health And Wellness Information Through New Media



    Today most of the sports and physical activity we engage in serve only for entertainment, recreation or to improve our health. In ancient cultures physical activity that we might consider exercise was only used for survival. This included hunting, gathering and eventually the manual labor involved in agriculture.  Ancient cultures further developed physical skills and knowledge of health for other purposes such as development of military and religious devotion. Today we have information available to us to become better athletes or to become healthier for a longer and happier life.  The ways in which this information is available has changed over time and continues to change as new technology is created and used by more people. 


    When looking further back in history at the origins of the human desire to better their own health and wellness, ancient Greek culture may include the foundations of the knowledge we have today. As with many types of technology for both western and middle eastern civilizations, concern for physical fitness, was developed due to a need to keep their militaries strong. (4) However the Greeks were also known to highly value the beauty and condition of a healthy and athletic body. They also had interest in physical activity to become physically fit rather than simply as a means to gather food and resources as it was for prehistoric cultures.  The earliest display of fitness may be traced back to 776 BC with the Olympic games in ancient Greece which was closely linked to religion and devotion to the gods. (6)


As far as the distribution of this information there have been many texts written by the ancient Greeks on topics such as medicine and health which were later studied by scholars after their discovery in the 14th and 15th century. (5) For many years the study of such ancient texts is studied by scholars and those who are interested in early medicine. With the invention of the printing press came the production of books, newspapers and eventually magazines. Magazines became one of the first modern tools in distributing information for those interested in physical activity and nutrition for health and wellness. 


  Magazines do not gain popularity in North America until around 1741 though they are not immediately successful. (7) It isn’t until the 1800s that magazines gain more popularity with publications such as Saturday Evening Post first published in 1821 and National Geographic in  1899. (8) One of the earliest general interest magazines, Reader’s Digest, contained information about health related topics. It was created by DeWitt Wallace and first published in 1922. (9) It soon became available internationally and translated into many different languages. While the purpose of the publication was to provide articles on many useful and interested topics this may have been one of the first uses of media to so widely distribute health and wellness information. At this point in time, one health related article could be read by people all over the world. 


    While articles based on scientific studies and personal experiences may be one way to learn about health related information, governments also provide information and regulations concerning nutrition. Today most consumers know what to expect in the basic information contained on the back of a food label on every packaging item in their pantry or refrigerator. One would expect to be able to find the amount of calories, a list of ingredients and other basic information that would help to make a choice when purchasing a food item. Those with food allergies can check for ingredients that might make them ill while others can choose a food item that best suits their dietary needs. In the U.S. the Food and Drug Administration is responsible for setting forth the regulations for the food labels and the requirements which have evolved over time. 


    The FDA describes itself as “…A scientific, regulatory, and public health agency that oversees items accounting for 25 cents of every dollar spent by consumers. Its jurisdiction encompasses most food products (other than meat and poultry), human and animal drugs, therapeutic agents of biological origin, medical devices, radiation-emitting products for consumer, medical, and occupational use, cosmetics, and animal feed. “ (1) The FDA as it is known today began in 1906, when President Roosevelt signed the Wiley Act,  in an effort begun in the late 1800s to regulate food and drugs in the US. (2) Through the decades the FDA continues to evolve and establish new rules for the food industry as they become more responsible for making sure that food and drugs on the market are safe for consumers. It isn’t until 1990 that the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) is passed which would be the beginning for the food labels we are familiar with today. (3)


Another medium that has been used to spread information about health and medicine is television. Beginning in the 1830s many developments were made with electronic communication, Many people are credited in the late 1800s and early 1900s with inventions and discoveries that eventually lead to the creation of television as we know it today. By the 1930s several television programs are being broadcast from London and the US. (10) The very beginning of such a wide public interest in athletics and fitness may have begun with the first televised sporting event with the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. (11) Today the Olympics, both winter and summer, are some of the highest rated programs to air all over the world. The 2012 summer Olympics pulled in over 31 million viewers in the US. (12)


The successful broadcast of athletic events also extends to the advertising. Major health and fitness related brands such as Nike,  Adidas and many others spend millions of dollars using popular athletes to promote their brands with TV advertising. Documentaries, and entertainment news channels often interview athletes about their training and diet. Through watching these events and learning more about the athletes who perform in them, millions of people around the world can learn more about how to condition their bodies to become better athletes. 


Eventually with the invention of the VCR videos became a popular way to exercise at home. In the 80s and 90s many “workout videos” became available and gained popularity.  Aerobics, kickboxing, yoga and anything that can be done in front of a tv could be done through watching a video.  The popularity of such videos has not slowed down even though video cassettes have faded out of existence. Only the medium which is used to watch these videos has changed from DVD to blue ray and more recently streaming video. With the ability to watch a video from a phone, computer or television instantly the fitness video industry has only grown larger.  While certain paid for videos may have become popular with streaming video there is also an endless amount of free video content in the fitness genre. Some if created be amateurs however, much of it comes from legitimate companies who offer free content as a way to make money through advertising.


In recent years with the invention of the internet many magazines have moved farther away from print. There are now many magazines that exist only online and others that print but heavily rely on the internet for both content and advertising. It is now possible to read the same magazine in print, on a desktop or laptop, a tablet and a smart phone. The ability to so quickly access information makes it necessary for publications to more frequently update their content. Social media such as twitter and facebook are used by nearly every company, especially magazines, to keep their customers interested.


Today the way we receive information is constantly changing. It’s becoming easier and quicker to learn about any subject regardless of where you live or what language you speak. Television is giving way to streaming video and print magazines are yielding to websites and tablet applications. When it comes to health and fitness, people generally want information as soon as possible and tailored to their own needs. iPhone applications such as My fitness Pal, which can track your calories taken in and burned as well as macro and micro nutrients and suggestions based on you age, weight, height and body fat percentage, may eliminate a need for anyone to hire a personal trainer, nutritionist and may possibly reduce a person’s need for doctor visits. Any one today can easily put together a healthy diet and exercise plan to suit their needs by using applications or using websites for research. 


I believe, as with most things that are marketed online, the future will allow us to have more applications  and devices specifically designed for each of our personal needs. It is already possible to use a phone application to take your heart rate simply by placing your finger on the camera of your phone. Eventually I believe more health related technology could be used on handheld devices that people carry with them each day.  Each technology that delivers information may seem to disappear but eventually it gives way to an improved version. Ancient texts studied by scholars became translated and mass produced. Newspapers and magazines delivered more content to larger audiences. Now even modern technology is becoming something better each day and provides us with new ways to educate ourselves and better our lives.
















Paper 2 Sarah Gualtieri

Sarah Gualtieri
IMA 503
Paper 2: The Evolution of How We Share Information

    Human interest in sharing information likely began simply with the need to survive. Knowledge of hunting and gathering had to be passed on and shared to help a community and future generations thrive. One of the earliest examples of passing on such knowledge may have been the caves of Lascaux. The Paleolithic cave paintings found in France includes images of animals such as bison and deer which may have served as education for successful hunting. (1) Thousands of years later, laser mapping and 3D modeling technology has made it possible for people all over the world to view and study these images.(2) Technology has allowed us to not only look forward and share new information but also to look into our past and study the lives and technologies of our ancestors.
    The technology used most throughout history to provide information to many is writing. The earliest forms of writing are credited to the Egyptians and Sumerians to around 3100 BC.(3) Writing evolved from literal images, simple symbols and concepts to eventually become more complex and capable of recording any kind of information. From clay tablets to papyrus and eventually the paper we know today, writing is a form of technology that is still evolving. It is possibly that one day in the not too distant future writing will completely evolve past paper and pens.
    Today every student and office worker can type information with a keyboard but the typewriter was its predecessor. Though there were a few individuals who developed similar technology, the first commercial typewriter, Remington Model 1, became available to the public in 1874. (4) Typewriters allowed anyone to write a neat and readable document however compared to today’s technology they were noisy, slow and difficult to edit existing documents with.
    The invention of computers has slowly, but drastically, changed the way we obtain and share information about everything. Many mechanical inventions used during the industrial revolution for both office use and manufacturing contributed to the invention of the modern computer. Simple machines existed for counting as early as 2700 B.C. when ancient civilizations used the Abacus, made from pebbles, stones or beads. (4) The purpose of all of these inventions that led to the computer was to make life easier or to produce more of a product in a quicker and less costly manner. The invention of the Programmable Weaving Loom in the 1700s made it possible for a machine to quickly and efficiently do a job that is the past required a person to do. (5)
    Not only could such machines be used to make a profit and provide goods but also to gain, analyze and share information. This is the main reason we use home and office computers. In 1890 Dr. Herman Hollerith invented a machine that was able to tabulate the 1890 U.S. census which was then possible to complete in only two years. (6)
    It was the invention of the Hollerith Machine that led to the beginnings of IBM. In 1921 Hollerith retired from his company, Computing Tabulating Recording company (CTR), and Thomas J. Watson became president and changed the name of the company to International Business Machines (IBM). (6) In 1964 IBM created the first standard institutional mainframe computer. (7) In the 1960s companies such as Xerox, Texas Instruments, Intel and others make technological advancements in computers build for gathering and analyzing information.
    In the early 1970s Steve Jobs and Bill Gates begin selling their early computers and developing Miscrosoft and Apple. These two companies are responsible for many of the popular devices used in homes and offices today.  But Apple’s introduction of the iphone could be the biggest development since the internet that changed the way we share information. The earliest versions of smartphones were available in the early 1990s from companies such as IBM and Nokia but such devices were too expensive and large to be as appealing as the iphone is now. (8)
    The iphone was released by Apple in 2007 which sold millions and was named “Invention of the Year” by Times magazine. (9) However, six years later it has changed the world enough that it may end up becoming one of the most significant inventions of the century. The idea of a handheld, touchscreen device was not completely original to Apple and several other companies, such as Google, have created their own versions to rival Apples’. But the iphone remains the first device to popularize the idea of the smart phone on such a worldwide scale.
    When the first iphone was released it featured a web browser, a music player and several other useful applications. With the introduction of the App Store came the development of apps that could utilize the smart phone in ways that Apple may not have even anticipated. Applications for smart phones can be developed by anyone who has the skill and large companies have been known to pay for exclusive rights to such applications. The application Instagram, an app that can turn an iphone photo into an artistic vintage image, was bought by Facebook for $1 Billion. Colleges have already begun to provide courses for students who wish to learn how to develop phone applications.
    Today the smartphone and/or tablet, combined with a fast internet connection, can replace almost any other method for obtaining and sharing information. Television and movies can be viewed by downloading or even streaming which gives us the ability to even watch events live through these devices.  Many people, especially older generations, are still watching television through a cable box or satellite but more and more people are watching television through streaming websites such as Hulu or Netflix. HBO has recently provided an application called HBO Go which allows any user  who subscribes through their cable company to access any of their shows or movies through the app at anytime. The app is available to some European companies without a subscription to a cable service, US customers are pushing to have the same option. The streaming website Netflix will be  exclusively airing a full new season the popular cancelled Fox network television program, Arrested Development. As these websites become more involved in such exclusive and convenient delivery of popular programs it is possible that cable companies will find it difficult to survive.
    The most widley used and most important information that we recieve and share daily is local and world news. Traditional media such as newspapers have struggled more and more as the popularity of online news websites grows. Paper has become an unessesary waste that cannot be as up to date as online news sources. Major news stories are usually available in a matter of hours, sometimes minutes, after an event occurs. Combined with the reduced cost of production and added revenue from online advertising, online news sources are easily more profitable. Most major newspapers that are still i circulation offer some type of online subscription. However it is easy for anyone to recieve up to date and accurate information completely for free, aside from the cost of a computer or phone and internet access which most people wish to have anyway.
    As computers become more portable and more accessible to people all over the world, the need for paper and other traditional media lessens. Physical copies of books, magazines and newspapers will diminish more each year. If the companies that produce these reading materials want to survive they will have to move to digital and most of them have already started. Magazines can be subscribed to through tablets and phones and nearly any book can be accessed though an e-reader, tablet or phone. Online news sources have become much more popular than traditional newspapers already.
    Though some companies might fail to make the transition there will always be a way for information to reach people. The delivery of information may change but the content will be the same.  There are many advantages to the reduction of paper. There will be lower costs, less waste and the ability to update information quickly. Mistakes will no longer be immortalized in thousands of printed copies. Any mistake in a book, magazine or online advertisement can be updated before as soon as it is discovered and reported to the publishers. Content can be updated throughout each day and there is no need to wait for the 5:00 newscast to stay up to date on local or world news.
    Television and radio can also be accessed through the same devices. There eventually will be no need for cable boxes, satellite dishes or radios. With one small device we can have information delivered in seconds in any form we choose. These devices are becoming more a part of the user than ever before. The term “Nomophobia” has been used to describe a fear a person has of being with out their mobile device. Google is developing glasses that would serve as a wearable computer, one that could make all of this information a part of every second of every day in a persons life. Apple is also developing a mobile wrist watch which is similar in the concept that all of this information is a part of who we are as a culture. Smartphones and computers have replaced many other forms of technology but they all serve the same purpose, to spread information, and that is the one thing that will remain the same though the delivery and the context will continue to change.




15 Must See Interactive Youtube Ads

Interactive ads on Youtube are great, but they are still an underused way for creating awesome and catchy commercials.

Many businesses are already experimenting with interactive video and some have got considerable success. That inspired me to pick out the best 15must-see interactive Youtube ads. Some of them are produced with a huge budget, some of them for nothing at all.


Alicia Sheerwood-Media Farm

Printed media has taken on many forms online giving over 2.1 billion boomers and millennials the opportunity to conveniently stay up to date with local, national and international content. Unlike the newspapers and magazines, the media sector broadly defined has become the dominant industry of the 21st century.

Where is content published today? Internet has opened up several new opportunities for accessing information on mobile tablet and desktop, Internet has also started social networking sites, which have redefined content all together. Content is King! Especially online. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, WordPress and YouTube have made news to the masses all the more entertaining, interesting, and easier! Newspapers, magazines and most printed materials with the exception of a few has diminished, opening opportunities for success in digital.

644 million active websites on the Internet according to Netcraft host content specifically targeting millennial’s and boomers. With this rapid growth of Internet and content, the platform for gathering and disseminating information has become a media farm. There are no standard editorial reviews for material published on the web leaving online publishers open opportunities to share information. Results of the overload had also showed boomers and millennials are large mobile, tablet and desktop consumers and presently practice multi screening; relying on mobile devices, tablets and desktop to digest content at large.

Keeping up with content has become a challenge for most viewers and validity has become a major concern; not knowing how to differentiate reliable and unreliable content. These mishaps have created fragments in our society causing and disconnect between user and device. Most boomers unlike millennial have grown leery to whole-heartedly adopting the current means of viewing content. For comfort and security, most boomers still rely on traditional means of receiving information: via water cooler conversations, pamphlets, and television.

Mellinials on the other-hand have embraced this new way, helping them access content relevant to their everyday life.

While the current ways of sharing information is motivating and exciting, the future of content sharing will grow rapidly. The challenge for the future is how do we share a copious amount of information without having to over extend our minds. With technology and ideas constantly on the rise, new technology will continue to roll out; creating more opportunities for content to simplified in how it is shared, negating multiple devices and the hefty price tag. Screen will hopefully evolve to being within our personal space. Projected on flat surfaces or directly in the palm of our hands. The ultimate goal has always been to decrease the size of the physical item but to enhance it capabilities.

XIANG LI — Post production of history



Sallie Gardner at a Gallop,  as one of the earliest silent films-a production experiment by the photographer Eadward Muybridge on Jun 15, 1878,  led to the development of motion picture. At first, the motion picture which consisted of 24 photographs in a fast-motion series   was shown on a zoopraxiscope. Soon after, the zoopraxiscope, along with zoetrope and the thaumatrope, were considered as the forerunner of today’s motion display technologies(including the animated GIF and video display technologies). Though the development of technologies, motion picture brought more entertainment for people, and post production also continues to improve year after year.


Hardware and software have developed rapidly. So that a longer time will be spent in the process of making post production of a film than that spent on the actual shooting of a film. Through the post production, it is possible to increase cinematic effects. Furthermore through the use of color correcting tools and the addition of music and sound, the atmosphere of the movie can be heavily influenced, and 3D technology has a great breakthrough.


3D film will occupy the leading position in the future market. With the development of post production and displayer, it will be unnecessary for people to wear 3D glasses when they watch 3D films.