IMA 505 History- Xingyu Long


business advertisement

I will choice the business advertisement as the subject area for this class because this area started from ancient times to the present and witness the changes of the media. Advertisement is a good topic to explain the past, present and future because it always be in the business.



Xiang Li -Third Paper

IMA 505 Third Paper

Xiang Li

May 6, 2013

History of Postproduction


Around 50 years ago Hollywood considered 3D movies would be widespread, with millions of cinema goes enjoying 3D movies by the late 1960’s. Well, fifty years on that thought is now becoming a reality as more and more producers and directors are investing their time and money in developing blockbuster movies in 3D format. However, many people could never expect how quickly the technology would allow people to watch 3D films in their very own homes.

Entertainment electronics manufacturers are investing hundreds of millions, if not billions of dollars into creating 3D compatible Bluray DVD players and 3D televisions. Enabling people watch cinema quality three dimensional movies whenever they choose to. The technology is also developing into different standards such as Dynamic Digital Depth which uses highly sophisticated software to now enter the home and transfer standard, two dimensional video output into 3D images. The software will unlikely be sold separately, but will instead be licensed to manufacturers such who will pre install the software into new TVs and Blu Ray players. It will also be possible for home entertainment fans to plug their 3D television into a broadband connection which will update the software as it develops. Ensuring that the television has a full life span. It is even anticipated that laptops and wireless notebooks will become 3D. Enabling everyone to watch 3D movies not just in their living room but literally anywhere in the world. The 1960’s saw the launch of color television throughout the United States, but it is the new millennium which has finally seen the explosion of 3D cinema movies and the arrival of technology which enables people to watch them in their homes and even whilst travelling to and from work. With some movies generating more than billion dollars in profit and flat screen televisions selling in their tens of millions it unquestionably justifies the massive investment in 3D entertainment technology.


The technology of three-dimensional vision is a spectacular, almost magical phenomenon enjoyed nowadays by millions of people around the globe. It has a long history that dates back to the 19th century when the stereoscopy was invented. Since then 3D technology has been evolving, gradually becoming more than just a gimmick, but a mainstream technology, thanks to Hollywood film-makers. Thus last 2010 year had an unprecedented amount of 3D theatrical film releases, either converted to 3D in post-production or shot in native 3D using special cameras. 3D technology is getting more ubiquitous among viewers with constantly rising number of 3D movies being released. Moreover, the technology currently enters not only theaters, but also living rooms with 3D TV, camcorders and PCs. In such a way 3D technology gets more “personal”. So it’s no wonder that today a great number of ways to experience it yourself is available in the market.

“So what 3D technologies I can use today?” you may ask. The answer is not so simple as it’s vast. In fact there are lots of possibilities to enjoy 3D personally. It just depends on the source of 3D playback you’d like to choose: your TV set, PC or maybe even heliodisplay.

The easiest, cheapest and most convenient way to experience 3D video yourself is to install special software on your PC that converts video to anaglyph 3D format. Most popular are multimedia converters like 3D Video Converter (on the screenshot below), Movie Video Converter 3D etc. 3D video converted by means of such programs can be watched only in anaglyph red-cyan glasses. The time of conversion depends on the size of the video file, but usually it takes about couple of minutes to successfully convert an hour length video to 3D format. Such software is widely used among 3D movie fans, amateur filmmakers and 3D designers.


Although 3D has been around since the 1950‘s, it’s been movies like Alice in Wonderland and Avatar that have really grabbed the attention of the public. 3D has only been getting positive reactions these days. 3D is only going to be stimulated more in the future. It has already redefined the way we look an entertaining content and will continue doing so.

Three obstacles that 3D once had were the uncomfortable but necessary glasses, the small amount of 3D content and upgrade fatigue. However the technology has already overcome these obstacles. The glasses have already been greatly improved in terms of comfort and even in quality of 3D displayed. The technology has already developed so much, that we are already able to buy TVs that do not require glasses to watch 3D content. The problem of lacking content is no more. Almost all movies produced these days are available on 3D be it in theaters or on Blu-Ray. Even old movies are being reproduced so they can be watched in 3D such as Finding Nemo. Television network have also begun offering the 3D viewing experience by introducing 3D channels. Sport channels were one of the most wanted 3D content at the introduction of the technology and have been realized with success. The number of channels is even expected to rise to over one hundred by 2015.

 Consumer electronics manufacturers have made the right decision by investing heavily in 3D technology. The technology has been making a lot of progress in terms of user friendliness. As already mentioned, in the future we will be able to watch content on TVs without the need of glasses. This will raise the popularity of 3D tremendously. This glasses-free 3D has already been implemented in a portable gaming device namely the Nintendo 3DS and will without doubt be seen on newer devices.. This has been proven to be a huge success. The Nintendo 3DS has now been sold over 15 million times in just one year.

It is very well possible that while developing 3D we might stumble on to newer and complementary technology that can further enhance entertainment content. 3D has already begun spreading over almost every screen we use these days. TVs, Mobile phones, tablets, portable gaming devices, cameras and more have all undergone a change because of the technology of 3D. This means that people have already accepted 3D and have faith that it will be continuously improved to enhance the viewer experience. Companies have already started to implement 3D in new products that can change our ways of watching movies and other content. An example of these products is the Sony HMZ-T1, which is a wearable head mounted display for viewing movies or playing video games in 3D-enabled High Definition.

 To conclude, 3D has greatly improved over the short years it has been available and will continue doing so. The continuously improvements on user friendliness will greatly increase popularity 3D will have influence on newer technology that will be developed. It has positively changed the way we enjoy entertainment content in almost all the entertainment industries. To me 3D is the refreshment the entertainment industry needed. Won’t it be replaced by next best thing? No, it won’t. 3D has already changed the way we entertain ourselves and has been heavily invested in. There is no new technology to replace 3D with and there is no reason to replace it. As far as I am concerned 3D technology has been doing great in the present but will also be the future of the entertainment industry.


3D isn’t going to dry up this year, or next year. Indeed for the rest of this decade. Until HD is beamed everywhere and anywhere, and until we feel that our phone needs to be in 3D, the world will still balance out its needs for 2D and 3D entertainment. But some day, and I wouldn’t dare guess as to when that day will come, 3D could become the norm. It just needs to get rid of the glasses, avoid the motion sickness and bring the price down – all of which are slowly happening.




Final Paper

IMA 505 Third Paper
Derek Stadler
May 5, 2013

The information revolution of the last two decades will dramatically change the future of education and the instruction of history.  The World Wide Web, which is still relatively in its infancy, has changed how information is accessed and distributed to instructors and students.  The invention of movable type by Gutenberg set the stage for how information was recorded centuries ago.  As with any other new invention that has changed civilization, the World Wide Web is no different.    The World Wide Web probably comes in second next to Gutenberg in its importance to the world.  Both of these inventions set the stage for information sharing and instruction.  This paper peers into some theories about where technology will guide education and instruction in the future.
One of David W. Lewis’ strategies for early twenty-first century academic libraries is that they “cannot afford to wait too long” in regards to adapting to the changing world of technology.  Speed and easy access to information is the way of the future.  Both scholars and patrons are accustomed to information on demand in the form of digital libraries.  Elementary education also needs to adapt to massive changes.  One change is the electronic book.  The Internet is a world without borders that challenges the traditions of publishing, where companies obtain the rights to publish works in specific regional markets.  National controls over content are a specialized application of protection systems that outline a set of restrictions on the ability to acquire and use content. They also represent a new and relatively unexamined control on the use of digital information.  Controls have implications for restricting the international flow of information and for facilitating national censorship policies. There is currently a great interest in technologies, such as Digital Island’s Traceware, which allow network servers to determine from what nation users are originating from as a means of incorporating national policies into the services provided by networked information resources.  However, there are many people who remain skeptical about dismissing print in favor of electronic material. Some past studies comparing reading on screen and paper for comprehension and accuracy favor print.  A 1998 study reported a decline in speed and accuracy, and an increase in fatigue, when reading from a screen. In addition, editors prefer to proofread from paper, where errors are more noticeable than on screen. Chris McAskill of has stated that the vast majority of eBook purchasers print before reading.  Gabriel B. Frommer, a professor of psychology at Indiana University, stated in 1998 that for students a “paper version appears to be almost necessary” and that “many also point out that a paper version is much easier to use when preparing for a test.”  Nevertheless those studies were conducted in the late 1980s and 1990s, and screen resolution and scroll-speed have increased dramatically.  Some believe that the new generation of learners, the Net Generation or N-Gen, is more accustomed to reading and learning from a screen. Tapscott described that “[kids] look at computers the same way [baby] boomers look at TV. This shift from broadcast medium (television) to interactive medium (the Net) signals a ‘generation lap’ in which the N-Gen is lapping its parents on the ‘info-track.’” Matt Gomez, DigitalOwl’s marketing director, agrees that children are more likely to take to electronic learning and stated that “students are the early adopters”  and “they’re still not going to want to do their homework, but when textbooks are interactive, when they can play with them like Nintendo, perhaps it will make learning a more enjoyable experience.”  Gomez takes it another step further and suggests that “some of the history textbooks in the Florida school system don’t even mention the Clinton administration, that’s how old they are. Digital textbooks can be updated on the fly with information on what happened in legislature two weeks ago.” Textbooks in electronic form can no longer be out of date and are much less costly.
The new world of learning puts learners at the center, leverages technologies and human capital in new ways, and incorporates new structures.  Learners will develop deeper knowledge and abilities, and new ways of thinking and acting will be required.  Future instructors on the other hand must use of next generation digital media such as immersive games, simulations, and technologies of cooperation to create rich learning experiences for each learner.  They must focus on “the whole student” by creating connections with their immediate communities and integrate multiple types of data streams to make the process transparent to learners, parents, and other key stakeholders.  The education system will provide all students with high-quality learning experiences making use of flexible and adaptive learning platforms.
For the future of education, Envisioning Technology.Com believes “fast-paced innovation and perpetual change is the only constant.”  The website visualizes the present as the prevailing paradigm of a single teacher addressing dozens of students in a physical setting.  Technology is fixed and centralized in a computer lab or classroom.  However it is also in a studio of peer to peer learning environments where groups discuss, learn and solve problems with each other and the teacher serves as a facilitator.  In this virtual environment, learning, discussion, and assessment happen regardless of physicality or geography.  Secondly it predicts in 2020 as classrooms digitize, students are free to collaborate with peers globally.  This will undo the traditional teacher-student model.  Teachers will focus on teaching and the classroom will be replaced by studios and virtual teaching modes.  The year 2030 leads to tangible computing or embedding computation to the physical via intelligent object such as digitally intermediated field trips.  The last prediction of 2040 is that over time education becomes a continuous, interconnected effort in a changing world.  Technologies will include holography, retinal screens, and virtual reality.  These will bridge the online-offline gap and offer a potential future where “embodiment is secondary to information access.”
The accessibility of information in the present and the future can be referred to as social-structured learning.  Users share knowledge with acquaintances on their hand-held or mobile devices in the instance that questions arise.  Measured on a social scale, it is an aggregation of micro-learning experiences drawn from accessible content and driven not by grades.  A project at USC and UCLA is taking this a step further.  Hypercities is a mobile app that displays not only “points of interest” in a particular location, such as restaurants, stores, and museums, but showcases historical information on the actual city terrain.  The Smithsonian Leafsnap phone is similar and responds when you take a photo of a tree leaf by instantly searching a growing library of leaf images.  Presently MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are the rage.  Some see them as a replacement of traditional lectures or tutorials.  However, this is an online rather than physical setting.  Social-structured learning, as the aforementioned view from Envisioning Technology.Com, breaks learning and education out of traditional institutional environments and embeds it in everyday settings and interactions, across a wide set of platforms and tools.  These include open content sources such as Wikipedia.  Education is a flow of information where learning resources are not scarce but widely available.


“The Future of Education July 2012.” Envisioning Technology. Accessed March 31, 2013.

Gorbis, Marina. “The Future of Education Eliminates the Classroom, Because the World is
Your Class.” Fast Company. 2013. Accessed March 31, 2013.

Lewis, David W. “A Strategy for Academic Libraries in the First Quarter of the 21st Century.”
College & Research Libraries. Vol 68 No 5, 2012: 418-434.

Lynch, Clifford. “The Battle to Define the Future of the Book in the Digital World.”
Third Paper. 2001. Accessed March 31, 2013.

“World of Learning.” Welcome to the World of Learning. 2013. Accessed March 31, 2013.
Accessed March 31, 2013.

Woudstra, Wendy J. “The Future of Textbooks: Ebooks in the Classroom.” Publishing
Central E-book Publishing. 2012. Accessed March 31, 2013.

The 44 year old tablet…


Imagine a pad-like computer no larger than a notebook that weighs less than 4 pounds, works via a touchscreen with a floating keyboard, connects to the Internet, and costs about $500. Actually, no mental conjuring is necessary. But in 1968, when Alan Kay conceived those requirements for the Dynabook, those things seemed radical. Kay, who is partly responsible for both GUI and object-oriented programming, was working at technology incubator Xerox PARC when he set out the specifications for what he believed would be a powerful educational tool.


Read more here from PC Mag

XIANG LI-History Paper

Thesis paper 02-Present

History of Postproduction


This semester I want to explore the development of post motion picture, and I will put more energy on the field of post production of film and television.


There actually is no motion whatever in a “motion picture.” On a screen, each successive photograph stands still for about 1/24th of a second, but the eye is tricked into believing that the flow of movement is continuous. The effect has been known since ancient times, and was described by Roman poet and philosopher Titus Lucretius Carus in the first century BC.

Until the end of the 1920s most cameras were hand-cranked; the operator turned a handle on the side of the camera to expose the film.  Two turns a second was average, but camera operators could turn the crank more slowly; this speeded up all the actors’ movements when the film was shown. The result is the familiar jerky, frenzied action of the silent comedy. Improved small electric motors made the motion picture camera a more reliable and consistent instrument.

The first projectors were really magic lanterns fitted with a hand-cranked device to advance the film. Many used gaslight as a light source, but as electricity became common, projectionists began to use powerful electric arc lights. Movie film was equipped with sprocket holes almost from the beginning. The holes were devised by Edison’s assistant, William Dickson. A rotating sprocket wheel engaged the holes to advance the film. The sprocket caused a lot of wear, and shows were often interrupted when the sprocket holes tore or film broke. Early films were made of nitrocellulose (Guncotton!) and could catch fire if the projector mechanism stopped turning the sprocket that moved the film or if the sprockets tore and the film motion halted. Non-flammable film made of cellulose acetate was invented in 1912. While it didn’t catch fire easily, it would char and melt quite nicely if the film stopped moving.

To create three-dimensional effects in a projected movie, the camera records two images through lenses several inches apart. The audience wears special glasses allowing the left eye to see the image filmed by the left camera lens, and the right eye to see the image filmed by the right lens. The lenses may use differing colors or differing polarization to produce the separation effect. 3-D movies relied on the shock value of objects seeming to catapult from the screen toward the audience. With little emphasis on plot and character, they were a passing fad, not a lasting success. Some 3-D movies were made as early as 1915, but their greatest popularity was in the early 1950s (27 3-D movies were made in 1953, the height of the craze).The inventor of the 3-D process used for movies such as Bwana Devil made more money as sole distributor of viewing glasses than he did from his percentage of box-office gross. Glasses bought at six cents each sold at the theatres for ten cents!


The documentary film  also rose as a commercial genre for perhaps the first time, with the success of films such as   March of the Penguins and Michael’s Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit. A new genre was created with Martin Kunert and Eric Manes’ Voices of Irap when 150 inexpensive DV cameras were distributed across Iraq, transforming ordinary people into collaborative filmmakers. The success of Gladiator lead to a revival of interest in epic cinema, and Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in musical cinema. Home theatre systems became increasingly sophisticated, as did some of the special edition DVDs designed to be shown on them. The Lord of the Rings was released on DVD in both the theatrical version and in a special extended version intended only for home cinema audiences.

In 2001, the Harry Potter film series began, and by its end in 2011, it had become the highest-grossing film franchise of all time.There is a growing problem of digital distribution to be overcome with regards to expiration of copyrights, content security, and enforcing copyright. There is higher compression for films, and Moore’s law allows for increasingly cheaper technology.

More films were also being released simultaneously to IMAX cinema, the first was in 2002’s Disney animation Treasure Planet; and the first live action was in 2003’s The Matrix Revolutions and a re-release of The Matrix Reloaded. Later in the decade, The Dark Knight was the first major feature film to have been at least partially shot in IMAX technology.There has been an increasing globalization of cinema during this decade, with foreign-language films gaining popularity in English-speaking markets. Examples of such films include CrouchingTiger, HiddenDragon(Mandarin), Amelie(French), Lagaan(Hindi-Urdu), Spirited Away (Japanese),City of God (Portuguese).

Recently there has been a revival in 3D film popularity the first being James Cameron’s Ghosts of the Abyss which was released as the first full-length 3-D IMAX feature filmed with the Reality Camera System. This camera system used the latest HD video cameras, not film, and was built for Cameron by Emmy nominated Director of Photography Vince Pace, to his specifications. The same camera system was used to film Spy Kids 3D: Game over(2003), Aliens of the Deep IMAX (2005), and The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D(2005).

After James Cameron’s 3D film Avatar became the highest-grossing film of all time, 3D films have gained increasing popularity with many other films being released in 3D, with the best critical and financial successes being in the field of feature film animation such as DreamWorks Animation’s How to Train Your Dragon and Walt Disney Pictures/Pixar’s Toy Story 3. Avatar is also note-worthy for pioneering highly sophisticated use of motion capture technology and influencing several other films such as Rise of the Planet of the Apes. As of 2010, the largest film industries by number of feature films produced are those of India, the United States and China.

Three-dimensional anything has always looked cheesy, but that wasn’t the case when I recently saw the very gory My Bloody Valentine 3D, which was shot using RealD technology and screened using a single high-res digital projector. There were pickaxes coming at you, blood splattering on your 3D glasses—I was in horror heaven! The 3D glasses handed out for the film were made of a durable plastic with polarized lenses. The polarized lenses allow each eye to see its own picture, even if you tilt your head; older 3D film methods used two projectors, and the anaglyphic (red/blue) glasses caused you to see double imaging if your head was tilted to the side.

Besides 3D movies, manufacturers have been focusing on other 3D-branded products for the home, such as 3D-ready HDTVs, 3D digital cameras, and 360-degree 3D scanners. We guide you through these and other amazing 3D products, from the present to the future

I believe when we get to the year 2020, we will look at our world and one of the biggest changes will be that 3d graphics are everywhere.  Between Augmented Reality and true Virtual Reality this technology will transform the world.

Second Life isn’t state of the art.  It’s about five years behind actually.  If you want to see something closer to state-of-the-art in Virtual Environments, check out Blue Mars. This is based on a video game graphics engine and is very much improved over Second Life.  Naturally, not all computers can run it, but every year the average machine is getting faster.  In fact, the iPhone almost has enough computing power to run it (but not the right software).

If you want to see what 3d graphics will look like in 10 years, look at Hollywood.  Interactive 3d graphics are about five years behind what Hollywood can do as Special Effects today.  Therefore in less than 10 years, we can expect truly photorealistic (meaning lifelike) graphics that we can overlay on top of reality.  This will blur what we consider real.

In order to do true interactive Raytracing, which is the biggest difference between what Hollywood does and what video games can do, you need a processor with 16 cores in it.  You can now buy processors that have 8 cores.  So we are almost there.  We will most likely see this sometime in 2011.  Now that doesn’t automatically get us photorealism, but according to Nvidia’s own timetable, we should probably see graphics that are nearly photorealistic in 2012.


We should expect that the use of 3D technology will continue and expand in to the normal household. Most major electronics manufacturers are planning the release of their 3D television lines. As the technology ages, expect prices to go lower and lower, and as they prices drop, more and more people will purchase 3D television sets.




Stadler MM History Paper Two

IMA 505 Second Paper

Derek Stadler

April 2, 2013


The technological advances of the late twentieth century directly impacted education and historiography.  New technologies increased digitization and the current student has more information at their fingertips than before.  Also, the last century of the second millennium developed a new school of historical thought.  The new method employs cultural history, as well as other approaches, and designs a new practice to interpret years gone by.  This paper details current technological advances in the digitized book, and how current historiography utilizes a global and comparative studies approach. 


Education became an institution between 6,000 and 5,000 years ago.  Throughout the development of education, teaching history played a significant role.  History is stories that we tell about society.  Writing stories of the past, historians create history rather than discover it.  They select the events and people that they believe to be important.  For period of time, Jewish and Christian scholars connected the divine and earthly narrative, particularly in the Middle Ages.  However, modern history teaching was influenced by positivism, or objective knowledge.  The art of transforming historical studies into a discipline attempts to determine the facts of history.  It aspires to be objective and serve as the standard of realism in political thought and action in general. 

By the 1960s, cultural history dominated interpretations of the past.  It attempted to show what people thought and how they thought, and how they construed the world, invested it with meaning, and infused it with emotion.  In the late 1970s, the cultural history school of historiography was followed by the “sociology of culture.”  Sociological methods were applied to the study of culture in the areas of music, art, drama and literature.  The current study of days gone by is global and comparative.  Beginning in the late 1980s and into the present, cultural sociologists advanced the study of culture toward a more worldwide related analysis.  Culture no longer stands for a concrete and bounded world of beliefs and practices.  It can be conceptualized in a number of different ways globally.  Culture can be a learned behavior and an institution that is devoted to the spheres of politics, economy, society and culture.  Culture can also be imagined as creativity or agency.  Lastly, it can be envisioned as a diverse collection of tools that are to be understood as a means for the performance of action.  Current practices, and most likely future historiography, use ethnography to study the way ordinary people made sense of the world.  It attempts to show how peoples of the world organized reality in their minds and expressed it in their behavior.  Of interesting note, comparative studies reveal both similarities and differences in recording historical events.

Technological advances and breakthroughs impacted the delivery of historical information since Herodotus.  Early historical records were scribed and later printed.  The advent of the computer impacted the instruction of history and changed the structure of how information is stored. The development of the World Wide Web in the late 1980s, and with Microsoft’s windows based operating systems in the early and mid 1990s, the global age of information exploded.  The World Wide Web can be “regarded as an interconnected set of different [digital] libraries that contain different kinds of collections and serve different communities of users.”  The first digital libraries contained mostly journal articles at universities such as the library at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  In 1994, the Digital Library Initiative mandated three United States government agencies to have their information in digital form, to be accessed through networks. 


The book as a source of historical information, and as a source of historical instruction, transformed to a digital book in the twentieth century.  CD-ROMs, diskettes, and eBooks have been around for almost thirty years.  By definition, a digital book is “just a large structured collection of bits that can be transported on CD-ROM or other storage media or delivered over a network connection, and which is designed to be viewed on some combination of hardware and software ranging from dumb terminals to Web browsers on personal computers to the new book reading appliances.”  They cover all disciplines.


The current drop in book sales and the increased role of digital books is revolutionizing the publishing and distribution of printed material, thus influencing the supply of historical material.  In 2010, the monthly searches on Google for a Kindle were 6.12 million, and on Google Books it was 1.83 million.  Downloading books was estimated to be 673,000 for kindles, 1,000,000 for eBook readers and 1,220,000 for the Sony Reader.  These figures doubled from the previous year, except the kindle which tripled.  According to a February 2009 AAP (U.S. Publishers Association) report, sales of eBooks increased one hundred seventy-seven percent compared to January and overall book sales fell.  The most recent Digital Book World conference in January 2013 boasted digital publishing companies such as Innodata, DigiServ, Biztegra, Semi-Linear, and Datamatics.  While scholarly and academic material is available at school and college libraries, more than 1,000 million people connect to the Internet and perform more than 6,000 million queries a day through Google.



While much of this material is no doubt fiction, the sharp increase in sales identifies that historical content is being received digitally.  Students and teachers are impacted by material being readily available.  The search for content takes a few seconds whereas in the past the retrieval of information was time consuming.  Two of the most popular e-book readers, Apple iPad and the Amazon Kindle Fire, engage students in interactive material.  The online classroom attempts a more student-oriented approach to learning, as tablet devices can be linked to projectors in the classroom setting.  Digitally archived historical materials can be easily accessed, making note-taking more efficient.  After the release of Apple’s iBooks2 and iBook Author in 2012, 350,000 iBook textbooks and 90,000 iBook Authors were downloaded in the first three days.


The technological advances in the classroom, whether primary or secondary educational levels, raises the question of the future.  Until recently, classrooms remained unchanged for nearly a hundred years.  The advent of whiteboards, projection equipment, and individual computers may lead to the end of the printed textbook. Companies such as DigitalOwl are sponsoring a Florida Digital Textbook Initiative, replacing traditional textbooks at several Florida schools with electronic textbooks on laptops and eBook reading devices.  Another situation to consider is that new post-2000 generations are more accustomed to reading and learning from a screen over paper.  A final issue is the question of copyright and how it can be protected in the digital age.



Darnton, Robert. The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History.

     New York: Basic Books, 2009.


Fossum, Mike. “eBooks Are Beginning to Replace Textbooks in the Classroom.”

     WebProNews. 2012. Accessed March 9, 2013.



Free, David.UF Digital Collections Reaches 1 Million Page Milestone." College & Research

     Libraries News. Vol 68 No 9, October 2007: 558.


Howell, Martha and Walter Prevenier. From Reliable Sources: And Introduction to Historical

     Methods. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.


Kantor, Paul B.Libraries, Digital.” Encyclopedia of Communication and Information.

     Vol 2, 2002: 527-531.


Lynch, Clifford. “The Battle to Define the Future of the Book in the Digital World.”

     First Monday. 2001. Accessed March 3, 2013.




Morais, Betsy. “The Book of the Future, Sliced and Diced.” Condé Nast. 2013.

    Accessed March 9, 2013.



Sewell, William. The Logics of History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.


Soler, Chimo. “’EBooks’: digital global war for domination of the book (ARI).”

Fundación Real Instituto Elcano. 2012. Accessed March 3, 2013.


White, Hayden. The Content of the Form. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,



Woudstra, Wendy J. “The Future of Textbooks: Ebooks in the Classroom.”

     Publishing Central. 2012. Accessed March 9, 2013.